Ni Luh Gita Gayatri Sumantra: The New Capital City: The New Home? The Delicate Dilemma between Sustainability and Growth in Indonesia’s New Capital City
vorgelegt als Hausarbeit am Instititut für Politische Wissenschaft der RWTH Aachen 2023
On 26 August 2019, Indonesian President Joko Widodo announced the historic decision to build a new capital city in response to Jakarta’s severe urbanization problems (Asmara & Syamsudin, 2019). This decision was made to address the city’s chronic traffic congestion, high levels of air pollution, and frequent flooding crisis (Lyons, 2019). Jakarta, as the center of government and business, was increasingly unable to accommodate the rapid population growth and bore the brunt of overdevelopment (Terzis, 2010). Therefore, the government decided to look for a new, more strategic, and sustainable location. After a careful selection process, two regions in East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo, Penajam Paser Utara and Kutai Kartanegara, were selected as potential candidates to become Indonesia’s new capital city (Lyons, 2019). The move is expected to provide new opportunities for economic and social development in the region, as well as make room for a green technology-based city with modern infrastructure and environmental sustainability integrated into its planning and implementation. The project faces major challenges, such as moving the entire government and state apparatus to the new capital, as well as social and cultural adaptation. However, the decision to build a new capital city is considered a form of Indonesia’s commitment to creating a better future for future generations (Tarigan & Milko, 2023). Indonesia’s new capital city in East Kalimantan is expected to be the embodiment of a ´smart city´ and ´green city´ that focuses on technological innovation, efficient energy management, and improved environmental quality. Named ´Nusantara´, which in ancient Javanese means archipelago (Beech, 2023), the new Indonesian capital is planned to cost 466 trillion Indonesian Rupiah ($32.79 billion), of which 19% will be state-funded and the rest will come from public-private partnerships and private investment. The cost includes the construction of new government offices as well as housing for around 1.5 million civil servants. The government is committed to creating an eco-friendly city with large urban parks, modern public transportation, and a sustainable environment that prioritizes nature conservation (Reuters, 2019). There are many controversies for and against the construction of this new capital city, especially the forced use of emergency funds amid the COVID-19 pandemic disaster in 2020. This paper will present a detailed look at the decision to build a new capital city in Indonesia. It will discuss the background to the decision, including the urban problems faced by Jakarta as the previous capital, and the rationale behind the decision to move the capital to East Kalimantan. In addition, the paper will highlight the impacts and challenges that may occur during the development process. Finally, it will conclude whether the relocation of the capital city is a form of resilience strategy to Jakarta’s problems.
2. Overview of the New Capital City
2.1 Reasons Behind the Decision to Relocate the Capital City
The proposal to move Indonesia’s capital city from Jakarta has been discussed since the reign of Indonesia’s first president, Soekarno, to the sixth president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. President Yudhoyono supported the idea due to environmental issues and overcrowding in Jakarta (Tejo, 2010). There are three main views on this proposal, namely moving the official capital like Brazil did with Brasilia, separating the administrative center but keeping Jakarta as the official capital like in Malaysia with Putrajaya, or keeping Jakarta as the capital and administrative center like Tokyo which is still the center of Japan’s government and economy (Prahara, 2019). This is not the first time Indonesia has moved its capital city. Five months after Indonesia’s independence on August 17, 1945, the capital of Indonesia, which had been in Jakarta, was moved to Yogyakarta due to the arrival of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA). Two years later in December 1948, Bukittinggi was made the capital of The Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) due to the Dutch military movement in Yogyakarta. Then it was moved again to Yogyakarta in 1949 and finally back to Jakarta on August 17, 1950 and legalized in Indonesian Law Number 10 of 1964 (Kahin, 1999). As a result of having a history of relocating the capital, Indonesia is increasingly eager to move its capital under the pressure of environmental concerns, particularly higher sea levels than land. While the fact that two-thirds of the country’s area is water brings a lot of advantages for Indonesia, such as being one of the world’s largest exporters of seafood and a major destination for beach and underwater tourism (Bruckner, 2005), too much water could be also disastrous for Indonesia.
Java, the most densely populated island in the world, with more than 145 million inhabitants in 2015 (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2015), is home to Jakarta, which has 11 million inhabitants (World Population Review, 2023). Jakarta, which only has an area of 661.5 km² (BPS DKI Jakarta Province, n.d.), has about 16,700 people per km². Not to mention the metropolitan cities around Jakarta, namely Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi, which are inhabited by more than 30 million people, who come every day to work in Jakarta (World Population Review, 2023), thus making the population density in the city of Jakarta even more overwhelming. An analysis in the Journal of Global Economics states that the optimal population density is 300 people/ km² (Cusack, 2017). From this data, it is clear that Jakarta is not an ideal place to live, as there is not enough space to move and grow. Household and industrial waste, lack of living and green spaces, absence of clean water, flooding, and endless traffic jams are the daily reality of Jakarta residents. In addition, urbanization in Indonesia has increased rapidly in recent decades. People from various regions flock to big cities, especially Jakarta, in search of a better life (World Bank Group, 2019). To house so many people, tall skyscraper buildings need to be built, which have heavy loads and require abundant water. This causes the land in Jakarta and its surrounding areas to have to accommodate a much heavier load than it should (Iom, 2022). Research from the Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia, has revealed the alarming fact that by 2050, an estimated 95% of Jakarta will be submerged due to rising sea levels (Doman & Lipson, 2019).
The visualization above shows blue for areas with a potential of 0 meters of subsidence, while red indicates areas at risk of 5 meters of subsidence (Doman & Lipson, 2019). Factors causing this threat include overexploitation of groundwater, increased building and infrastructure loads, and tectonic activity due to the confluence of three tectonic plates in Indonesia, namely the Indo-Australian plate, Eurasian plate, and Pacific plate, which causes frequent earthquakes and tsunamis (Iom, 2022). The impact is already being felt by Jakarta residents today, with damage to buildings and infrastructure occurring due to land subsidence. Flooding is becoming a serious problem that is increasingly widespread, disrupting daily life and disrupting the water system. A decline in quality of life is an unmitigated reality for the city’s residents (Doman & Lipson, 2019). Although the perception of risk is often low, as most residents consider subsidence to be a normal natural phenomenon (Bott et al., 2021), the reality is that subsidence carries significant risks. The effects of subsidence include the danger of homes sinking into the ground due to groundwater extraction beneath them. Impacts include difficulty accessing the house and lack of natural light. In addition, cracks in the walls of the house threaten the structural integrity of the building, as well as increasing the risk of flooding. Higher land subsidence also means more frequent flooding for households in the area. Abidin et al. (2011) translates the problem in the scheme below.
To cope with the damaging effects of vertical ground movement, homeowners are forced to elevate their houses every few years, by removing the roof, filling the floor with sand, raising the walls, and finally re-roofing. This phenomenon is seen in many homes in low-income areas of Jakarta (Bott et al., 2021). Not only houses but also roads must be elevated to remain passable in low-lying areas. The elevation of these roads is not only a personal responsibility but also involves the city government and political parties. Some households even participate in the road elevation process by requesting public funds or manually contributing to the construction work. This elevation of infrastructure also puts additional pressure on low-income households, as their houses are relatively lower than the newly elevated road (Bott et al., 2021). While many households have so far been able to cope with the impacts of land subsidence, the financial outlay for house construction is a burden that limits investment in other areas. The minimum cost of raising a house to a safe level in low-income areas is substantial, reaching around US$800. Lower subsidy rates make it even more difficult for these households to raise funds for upgrades. Some people who cannot afford home upgrades end up installing pumps to drain floodwater out of their buildings (Bott et al., 2021).
2.2 Location of the New Capital City
The regions of Penajam Paser Utara and Kutai Kartanegara in East Kalimantan were selected as potential locations for the new capital city. This decision was made after an in-depth research process and study of various aspects, including geological aspects, infrastructure potential, social and economic aspects, and environmental impacts (Clark, 2023). East Kalimantan is a region that has a large area and a variety of rich natural resources, including coal reserves and extensive rainforests. This natural resource potential provides opportunities for sustainable infrastructure development, such as transportation, energy, and industrial development (The Jakarta Post, 2017).
Consideration to move the capital city from Jakarta to a new location outside Java was made in April 2017. The government then conducted assessments and studies to identify potential locations for the new capital city (Kuwado, 2019). The process of selecting a new capital city also involved the approval of a bill and amendments to the 1945 Constitution. On January 18, 2022, the Indonesian Parliament passed the Capital Relocation Bill, which stipulates the establishment of the Nusantara National Capital Authority, a special body responsible for the new capital city and regulating matters related to funding, tax management and assets in the new capital city (Nainggolan, 2022). The People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR), consisting of the House of Representatives (DPR) and House of Regional Representatives (DPD), amended the 1945 Constitution to provide security and sustainability for the capital relocation project in the long term and ensure its continuation after President Jokowi’s term ends. This regulation was enacted on February 15, 2022, in Law Number 3 of 2022 concerning the national capital (Harruma, 2022).
3. Defining Sustainability and its Importance in Building the New Capital City
In the context of development, sustainability describes an approach that integrates economic, social, and environmental aspects to achieve viable and balanced development. The importance of sustainability lies in its ability to maintain environmental sustainability, reduce negative impacts on nature and society, and promote sustainable and inclusive development for all generations without compromising the quality of life of the future (United Nations Sustainable Development, 2023).
3.1 The Role of Economic Growth in Capital City Development
Economic growth plays a central role in the development of the new capital city. Sustainable economic growth allows sufficient resources to support the development of infrastructure and public facilities, such as roads, transportation, housing, clean water, and electricity. Through sustainable economic growth, the government can increase state revenue, allowing more funds to be allocated to strategic projects that support the development and progress of the new capital city (The World Bank Group, 2023). The interconnected and mutually supportive relationship between sustainability and economic growth means that sustainable economic growth requires wise management of natural resources and the environment to prevent environmental damage that could hinder long-term development (United Nations Environment Programme, n.d.). The concentration of growth and development in Jakarta has also increased the development gap between Java and outside Java. As the economic and political center, Jakarta attracts a lot of investment and resources, while other regions have not received the same benefits from this development. The construction of a new capital city outside Java is expected to reduce this gap and even out development across the country.
3.2 Advantages of Relocating the Capital City
The relocation of the capital from Jakarta is intended to suppress economic growth, as it will serve as the center of political, administrative, and economic activities (Susilo, 2021). As the city’s economy grows, increased government revenue can be invested in building and upgrading critical infrastructure. This includes the construction of modern roads, efficient public transportation systems, well-equipped airports, and other essential facilities that improve connectivity and facilitate the smooth movement of goods and people within and beyond the capital city. In addition, strong economic growth in the new capital city is also expected to open up many job opportunities. A thriving economy attracts a diverse workforce from different regions and leading to urbanization. A flourishing city economy offers jobs in various sectors, providing a wide range of employment options and opportunities for upward mobility (Campante et al., 2019). The relocation of the capital city is also aimed at promoting development in eastern Indonesia. Historically, Java and other large islands have been the main focus of development in Indonesia, leaving the eastern region with significant development inequality. By moving the capital to East Kalimantan, the government hopes to even out development and provide opportunities for other regions, particularly eastern Indonesia, to develop economically and socially (Susilo, 2021). In addition, economic growth empowers the government to provide better public services and facilities. As the city’s economy grows, more resources can be allocated to important sectors such as healthcare, education, sanitation, and recreational facilities. A well-developed capital city can attract skilled professionals, foster a knowledge-based economy, and contribute to overall national development (Say, 2011). In addition, economic growth is also a magnet for investment. A thriving capital city becomes an attractive destination for domestic and foreign investors. The city’s potential for higher returns on investment encourages the establishment of new businesses and industries, which in turn promotes economic growth and development (Correa, 2016). In addition, the economic growth of a capital city can enhance the national reputation in the international arena. It becomes a symbol of progress and development, attracting global attention and foreign investment. The capital city serves as the center of diplomatic activity and international engagement, enhancing the country’s reputation on the global stage, where peace agreements and reforms are launched (Hughes & Miklaucic, 2016). The new capital city will also plan for the balance of nature and the environment. By moving the capital to Kalimantan, the government can keep Jakarta as a business and tourism center without sacrificing its environment and natural resources. Kalimantan has vast areas of rainforest and rich biodiversity, and moving the capital provides an opportunity to manage the new region with an environmentally sound approach. The current President Joko Widodo emphasized that the new capital would have a green area of 70% and use renewable energy, making it a forest and nature-based smart city (Alfarizi, 2022).
4. The Challenging Dilemma
4.1 Balancing Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability
The development of the national capital, which will take up 256,142 hectares of land, certainly has a dilemma between economic progress and environmental sustainability (Karim, 2023). The relocation and construction of the new capital city to Kalimantan creates new potential for forest destruction in East Kalimantan and will threaten the survival of flora and fauna as the ecosystem becomes disrupted. While rapid and significant economic growth is expected to drive development and community welfare, it can also harm the environment. Large infrastructure development and expansion into Borneo can lead to deforestation, ecosystem degradation, and increased greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Deforestation that occurs on a large scale to make room for infrastructure such as roads, housing, and public buildings can destroy natural habitats, reduce biodiversity, and alter water systems and river flow patterns, which in turn can potentially trigger flooding and soil erosion (Llewellyn, 2020). In addition to the fact that the island of Borneo is one of the world’s lungs, generating oxygen through its trees, the relocation of the new capital city also threatens the potential for massive deforestation that could lead to drinking water shortages. Deforestation for infrastructure and housing development can cause ecosystem damage and disrupt water catchment areas that are important for clean water supply. Dwiko Budi Permadi, S.Hut., M.Sc., Ph.D., a Lecturer from the Faculty of Forestry UGM, has highlighted the threat of deforestation in the development of the National Capital City (IKN) in North Kalimantan. Planned deforestation occurs in sectors that utilize forest land, by changing and converting forest land designations. In this context, the Government promotes the concept of the National Capital City as an advanced, smart, green city, or what is often called a „forest city,“ where 70% of the National Capital City is planned as a green area. However, this statement raises critical questions because of the total area of 256 thousand hectares, most of which is forest. This means that to realize 70% green area, it will require deforestation of up to 30% of the land for infrastructure development and other purposes (Ekaptiningrum, 2023). Deforestation in Kalimantan has become a serious issue in recent years. Forest loss will cause changes in river flow patterns, lead to degradation of water quality, and disrupt watersheds that are critical for drinking water supply for the local population and surrounding areas. In addition, the loss of natural habitats can lead to the loss of diverse species of flora and fauna that are essential for healthy ecosystems (Gokkon, 2023b). Large infrastructure constructions can lead to increased air and water pollution. Not only that, the use of heavy machinery, construction waste management, and increased human and vehicle mobility can contribute to air and water pollution that is detrimental to the environment and human health (Ekaptiningrum, 2023). Other environmental impacts include an increased carbon footprint due to the production of building materials, energy use in construction, and higher mobility (Gokkon, 2023b). These impacts are already being felt directly by ocean and river fishermen in areas near Nusantara. The presence of large ships carrying construction materials has led to the depletion of the variety of fish and animals under the sea and rivers so that fishermen can no longer fish as before. There are more than 10,000 fishing families in North Penajam Paser and Balikpapan City who depend on Balikpapan Bay for their livelihoods, and now, due to the ban on fishing and the shortage of fish supply, which has dropped by more than 70%, have to struggle to find other sources of livelihood (Hariandja, 2022). „If the new capital city truly happens, the negative impacts will first fall upon coastal communities who are fishers,“ said Darman, a fisherman. Because in the end, inevitably, the development of the new capital city will only favor the rich and lead to the relocation of the local poor (Gokkon, 2023a).
4.2 Social and Cultural Issues
Moving the new capital city to Kalimantan also raises several complex social and cultural issues. One of these is the impact on local communities and the cultural life that already exists in the region. The move could lead to changes in population migration patterns, potentially triggering land and resource conflicts between local communities and the government, and presenting social integration challenges between newcomers and indigenous people (Riski, 2023). Changes in the social environment may also occur due to increased human mobility, which may result in the growth of informal settlements and changes in the social structure of surrounding communities. In addition, the development of new infrastructure and industries can change people’s livelihood patterns, threaten traditional practices, and affect the existing socio-cultural balance (Maryati, 2019). This has been seen first-hand from the outpourings of residents around Penajam Paser Utara and Kutai Kartanegara. Those who mostly make a living as fishermen, whose catches, as already mentioned, have drastically decreased, are not ready to change their source of income. Similarly, farmers and laborers are threatened with losing their land to the government for development. Most of them did not go to school and therefore do not have the necessary skills related to the construction of the national capital, such as architects, civil engineers, and development managers. All they know is how to utilize natural resources (Gokkon, 2023a). Moving the capital city also raises questions about national identity and local wisdom. The people of Kalimantan have unique cultures and traditions that may be affected by new migration flows and the dominance of outside cultures. This raises the challenge of preserving local cultural heritage while adopting the changes brought about by the construction of the new capital city (Maryati, 2019). Emmanuela Shinta, an indigenous Borneo activist, mentioned that the Dayak and Banjar indigenous tribes of Borneo still adhere to local traditions and the balance of nature. This will cause some controversies and social inequalities and threaten indigenous tribes in Borneo if there is no comprehensive inclusive education and counseling in remote areas (Shinta, 2022). In addition, relocating the capital city could also lead to commercialization and gentrification in some areas, which could displace indigenous people and change the characteristics of the area. This could trigger a clash of values between modern development and the preservation of local culture (Riski, 2023).
4.3 Recurring Problems
Although the plan to relocate the capital city is seen as a strategic move, many still doubt its sustainability and consider it a mere problem displacement. Critics of the plan point to the fact that the relocation of the capital city has not fully addressed the main root causes of the problem, namely the overexploitation of groundwater and the high urban surface load in Jakarta. Although the real dangers of land subsidence have been recognized, debate and planning in both Jakarta and the new capital city in Kalimantan continue (Bott et al., 2021). In addition, the lack of monitoring and enforcement of existing groundwater use regulations (Colven, 2020; Saputra et al., 2017) is a central issue. The more dominant debates related to this plan tend to focus on adaptation efforts such as resettlement, with the implications of moving the capital possibly leading to concerns of an „abandoned city“. This is because priority is placed on the relocation of government institutions and infrastructure, while the majority of the population and industrial sector are likely to remain in place (Bott et al., 2021). Of course, the social and economic impact of this decision is an important consideration. While most residents and industries could potentially remain in Jakarta voluntarily, public funds invested in reducing disaster risk in Jakarta might be diverted to Kalimantan. The conflict has also been seen on a smaller scale in Jakarta over resettlement, where interactions between communities and the provincial government have shown negative impacts on the adaptive capacity of affected communities (Garschagen et al., 2018; Leitner & Sheppard, 2017).
5. Strategies for Sustainable Development in the New Capital City
5.1 Incorporating Green Technologies and Practices
Strategies for sustainable development in Indonesia’s new capital city should carefully incorporate modern technologies and green practices to create a sustainable and environmentally friendly environment. In this endeavor, the application of advanced technologies can be one of the key pillars. The use of the latest technologies such as smart building systems with automatic control of temperature, lighting, and warm pump, as well as the use of renewable energy such as solar panels and wind turbines, can be significant in reducing energy consumption and environmental impact. Sensor technology can also be utilized to monitor the efficient use of energy and other resources, enabling continuous improvement (Kochan, 2018). In addition to technology, green practices should also be a key focus. This includes thoughtful spatial planning, where green spaces, urban parks, and open areas are important elements in the design of new cities. Sustainable land uses such as urban agriculture and greening rooftop areas should also be promoted to help maintain environmental balance. One key aspect of this strategy is sustainable transportation. Building efficient and environmentally friendly public transportation systems such as high-speed trains, electric buses, and bicycle lanes can reduce congestion and air pollution that are common in big cities. Infrastructure that supports electric cars, such as public charging, will also help in reducing pollution emissions from transportation (Van Der Heijden, 2017). Sustainable water management is also a major concern. Utilizing technology to collect and recycle rainwater can help reduce the need for diminishing groundwater. In addition, the use of technologies to efficiently manage wastewater and sanitation is also important in maintaining environmental quality and public health (Abidin et al., 2011).
This phenomenon needs to be considered in urban planning, including land use, groundwater regulation, buildings, infrastructure, flood control, and seawater intrusion. Further investigation is needed to understand this relationship, including other factors such as building loads, natural soil consolidation, and tectonic movements. Systematic research also needs to be conducted to assess the impact of land subsidence on inundation and sea level rise in the coastal areas of Jakarta (Abidin et al., 2011). Adaptation measures are needed to mitigate the impact of these phenomena so that similar events do not occur elsewhere and the relocation of the capital city will be worth it. Overall, the sustainable development strategy in the new capital city should be a holistic integration of innovative modern technologies and sustainable green practices. It is not just about building physical infrastructure, but also creating a culture and attitude that cares about the environment and long-term quality of life. Therefore, in planning the relocation of the capital city, efforts to protect Kalimantan’s forests and water resources should be prioritized. Environmentally sound mitigation measures should be implemented to minimize negative impacts on the environment and ensure the availability of clean water for future residents (World Resources Institute, 2020).
5.2 Building Environmentally Friendly Infrastructure
In the effort to build a sustainable new capital city, a focus on environmentally friendly infrastructure is key. Such infrastructure includes sustainable transportation systems such as efficient and environmentally friendly public transportation networks, bicycle lanes, and adequate pedestrian space (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999). This includes the development of rail, bus rapid, bicycle, and pedestrian networks that minimize the use of private vehicles. By prioritizing sustainable public transportation, it can reduce congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and improve mobility for citizens (Cervero & Kockelman, 1997). One important aspect of sustainable development is effective waste management and the use of recycling. The new capital city could implement a modern and efficient waste management system, including processing organic waste into energy, as well as promoting recycling practices, and reducing single-use plastics. This can reduce negative impacts on the environment and reduce the volume of waste going to landfills (Bhada-Tata & Hoornweg, 2012). The development of parks, urban gardens, and green spaces is also vital as they can provide ecological benefits such as flood control, improved air quality, and recreational opportunities for residents (Tzoulas et al., 2007). As mentioned earlier, the national capital will be a green city, but it is the people who are expected to access these areas, not just the elite. This can be created by implementing the integration of sustainable architectural design principles such as the use of recycled materials, utilization of natural light, and energy-oriented design. This helps reduce the carbon footprint and energy used in development, as well as improve energy efficiency and comfort for residents (Pacheco-Torgal et al., 2013).
5.3 Implementing Environmental Protection Policies
Implementing environmental protection policies is essential in the context of developing a new capital city. These policies include regulating sustainable land use, applying strict standards to industrial emissions and waste, and protecting conservation areas and important ecosystems. In addition, policies that encourage the use of renewable energy, efficient water management, and air pollution control are also important for maintaining a healthy environment. With the adoption of strong environmental protection policies, the new capital city can grow by maintaining a balance between development and environmental preservation (Bulkeley et al., 2014). For this reason, it is important to involve the community in the planning and decision-making process related to the development of the new capital city. Public participation and citizen engagement can help identify local needs, evaluate social and environmental impacts, and create a sense of ownership over development projects. This can create solutions that are more sustainable and better suited to the needs of the community (Rowe & Frewer, 2000). This also means addressing the importance of involving local communities in decision-making and implementation processes. Empowerment of local and indigenous communities can be done through participatory programs that involve citizens in development planning, environmental management, and policy-making. Communities can provide insights into local needs and help to sustainably protect the environment and natural resources (Rowe & Frewer, 2000). Until now, the policy has been included in Law Number 3 of 2022 concerning the National Capital City, which contains a „regulatory sandbox or testbed that is pro-investment, pro-innovation that allows testing of new products, technologies, and business models, pro-trade to support the efficiency of the economic cluster supply chain, and pro-environment“ which makes this policy an evidence-based policy (Lembaga Administrasi Negara Republik Indonesia, 2022).
An examination of the plan to relocate Indonesia’s capital city to East Kalimantan reveals several important findings. The main driver behind this decision is the urgent need to address the environmental and urban challenges faced by Jakarta. Land subsidence caused by excessive groundwater extraction and urbanization has become a serious threat to the city’s future. While the decision to relocate the capital was taken to address these issues, it needs to be recognized that it has not fully addressed the root of the problem. More focus has been placed on adjusting to the aftermath rather than addressing the underlying factors contributing to subsidence. The complex interplay between economic growth and sustainability plays a central role in this issue. Economic growth has been the main driver behind Jakarta’s urbanization and development, but it has also been the main cause of the environmental degradation and challenges faced today. The new capital city project brings with it the dilemma of finding a balance between economic development and environmental preservation. While the project provides an opportunity to implement sustainable practices, it also carries the risk of repeating unsustainable patterns as seen in Jakarta. In the context of relocating the capital city, government intervention has an important role to play in regulating urban sustainability and resilience. In the face of the complexity of urban development, technical intricacies, and economic interests involved, regulatory intervention becomes a possible strategy. However, the development of these regulations is often time-consuming and does not always keep up with technological developments. Problems arise when multiple actors and organizations are involved, and resistance arises from large corporations and communities concerned about regulatory change (Van Der Heijden, 2017). In addition, collaborative governance and voluntary programs are also proposed as sustainable solutions. However, questions arise regarding who should be involved in the development and implementation of new governance tools in new capitals. Involving all affected parties can be complex, and large collaborations often have difficulty reaching a consensus. It also raises questions about accountability and the effectiveness of democracy within a collaborative framework. No single governance approach is sufficient to achieve urban sustainability and resilience (Van Der Heijden, 2017). A combination of diverse governance systems, processes, and tools must interact with each other in different contexts. While many governance tools are discussed in the literature, there is still a lack of robust theory on urban governance. This is particularly noteworthy given the complexity of cities and their role in international governance. While regulations, green practices, and voluntary programs are an important part of sustainable development strategies, they may not be sufficient if they are not well integrated. In the context of complex cities, various traditional and new governance systems, processes, and tools must interact and collaborate to achieve desired outcomes. However, there are still many aspects that need further research in the field of urban governance, including how cities play a role in international politics and how city-to-city collaboration affects global dynamics. To effectively address the sustainability and growth dilemma in new capitals, a comprehensive and integrated approach is required, such as holistic planning and regulation, green infrastructure and innovation, public participation and collaboration, investment in research and education, and monitoring and evaluation (Bulkeley & Kern, 2006). By adopting these recommendations, Indonesia’s new capital city has the potential to break the cycle of unsustainable development and create a model of a thriving, resilient, and environmentally conscious urban center. It will be the answer that moving to the new capital city is a resilient strategy and will be a new home for Indonesians.
Abidin, H. Z., Andreas, H., Gumilar, I., Fukuda, Y., Pohan, Y. E., & Deguchi, T. (2011). Land subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and its relation with urban development. Natural Hazards, 59(3), 1753–1771. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9866-9
Alfarizi, M. K. (2022, October 18). New capital city of Nusantara 70 percent “Green” and “Smart” says Jokowi. Tempo. https://en.tempo.co/read/1646766/new-capital-city-of-nusantara-70-percent-green-and-smart-says-jokowi
Asmara, T., & Syamsudin, A. (2019, August 26). Indonesian president reveals site for new capital. Benar News. https://www.benarnews.org/english/news/indonesian/capital-move-08262019164756.html
Badan Pusat Statistik. (2015, April 3). Jumlah penduduk di pulau Jawa menurut jenis kelamin dan provinsi. https://lokadata.beritagar.id/. https://lokadata.beritagar.id/chart/preview/jumlah-penduduk-di-pulau-jawa-menurut-jenis-kelamin-dan-provinsi-1491206104#:~:text=Jumlah%20penduduk%20di%20pulau%20Jawa%20menurut%20jenis%20kelamin%20dan%20provinsi%20%2D%20Lokadata&text=Hasil%20Survei%20Penduduk%20Antar%20Sensus,dan%20perempuan%2072.429.447%20jiwa.
Beech, H. (2023, May 20). Indonesia plans on building Nusantara, a new capital city. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2023/05/16/headway/indonesia-nusantara-jakarta.html
Bhada-Tata, P., & Hoornweg, D. (2012). What a Waste. A Global Review of Solid Waste Management, 1–116. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/10986/17388/8/68135.pdf
Bott, L., Schöne, T., Illigner, J., Haghighi, M. H., Gisevius, K., & Braun, B. (2021). Land subsidence in Jakarta and Semarang Bay – The relationship between physical processes, risk perception, and household adaptation. Ocean & Coastal Management, 211, 105775. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2021.105775
BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta. (n.d.). BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta. https://jakarta.bps.go.id/indicator/153/38/1/luas-daerah-menurut-kabupaten-kota.html
Bruckner, A. W. (2005). The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6365009_The_importance_of_the_marine_ornamental_reef_fish_trade_in_the_wider_Caribbean
Bulkeley, H., Broto, V. C., & Edwards, G. (2014). An urban politics of climate change. In Routledge eBooks. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315763040
Bulkeley, H., & Kern, K. (2006). Local government and the governing of climate change in Germany and the UK. Urban Studies, 43(12), 2237–2259. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980600936491
Cervero, R., & Kockelman, K. M. (1997). Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design. Transportation Research Part D-transport and Environment, 2(3), 199–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1361-9209(97)00009-6
Clark, J. (2023, July 31). Nusantara – new capital city of Indonesia. https://futuresoutheastasia.com/nusantara-new-capital-city-of-indonesia/
Colven, E. (2020). Subterranean infrastructures in a sinking city: the politics of visibility in Jakarta. Critical Asian Studies, 52(3), 311–331. https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2020.1793210
Cusack, P. T. E. (2017). Physical economics and optimum population density. Journal of Global Economics. https://doi.org/10.4172/2375-4389.1000244
Doman, M., & Lipson, D. (2019, June 23). Jakarta is running out of time to stop itself sinking into the sea. ABC News. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-06-24/jakarta-is-running-out-of-time-to-stop-itself-sinking/11190928
Ekaptiningrum, K. (2023). IKN merusak Paru-Paru dunia? Universitas Gadjah Mada. https://ugm.ac.id/id/berita/23763-ikn-merusak-paru-paru-dunia/
Garschagen, M., Surtiari, G. a. K., & Harb, M. (2018). Is Jakarta’s new flood risk reduction strategy transformational? Sustainability, 10(8), 2934. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082934
Gokkon, B. (2023a, March 9). As Indonesia’s new capital takes shape, risks to wider Borneo come into focus. Mongabay Environmental News. https://news.mongabay.com/2023/03/as-indonesias-new-capital-takes-shape-risks-to-wider-borneo-come-into-focus/
Gokkon, B. (2023b, May 4). Indonesia’s new capital ‘won’t sacrifice the environment’: Q&A with Nusantara’s Myrna Asnawati Safitri. Mongabay Environmental News. https://news.mongabay.com/2023/05/indonesias-new-capital-wont-sacrifice-the-environment-qa-with-nusantaras-myrna-asnawati-safitri/
Hariandja, R. (2022, August 24). Nelayan Teluk Balikpapan, sudah terhimpit makin terancam kehadiran IKN Nusantara – Mongabay.co.id. Mongabay.co.id. https://www.mongabay.co.id/2022/08/24/nelayan-teluk-balikpapan-sudah-terhimpit-makin-terancam-kehadiran-ikn-nusantara/
Harruma, I. (2022, June 24). ISI UU IKN. KOMPAS.com. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2022/06/25/02150071/isi-uu-ikn#:~:text=KOMPAS.com%20%E2%80%93%20Undang%2DUndang,Penajam%20Paser%20Utara%2C%20Kalimantan%20Timur.
Iom. (2022, March 10). Penyebab Muka Tanah Turun yang Ancam Jakarta Tenggelam. Teknologi. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/teknologi/20220210143649-199-757554/penyebab-muka-tanah-turun-yang-ancam-jakarta-tenggelam
Kahin, A. (1999). Rebellion to integration: West Sumatra and the Indonesian Polity, 1926-1998. Amsterdam University Press.
Karim, L. M. F. (2023, June 7). Dilema Ibu Kota Nusantara: Pembangunan atau Perusakan Lingkungan? Perspektif Teori Modernisasi MEDIA KALTIM. MEDIA KALTIM. https://mediakaltim.com/dilema-ibu-kota-nusantara-pembangunan-atau-perusakan-lingkungan-perspektif-teori-modernisasi/
Kochan, D. (2018). The prospects and challenges of socially engaged urban planning and architecture in contemporary China. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 41(4), 477–490. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456×18796635
Kuwado, F. J. (2019, July 30). Ibu Kota Baru Indonesia, dari Proses hingga Pemilihan Kalimantan. . . KOMPAS.com. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2019/07/30/12061971/ibu-kota-baru-indonesia-dari-proses-hingga-pemilihan-kalimantan
Leitner, H., & Sheppard, E. (2017). From Kampungs to Condos? Contested accumulations through displacement in Jakarta. Environment and Planning A, 50(2), 437–456. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518×17709279
Lembaga Administrasi Negara Republik Indonesia. (2022, June 2). Dorong Analis Kebijakan Berkontribusi Mengawal Kebijakan Pemindahan IKN, LAN Gelar VPL seri III Tahun 2022. LAN RI. https://lan.go.id/?p=9415
Llewellyn, A. (2020, February 3). Capital in waiting: trepidation in corner of Borneo earmarked as the new Jakarta. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/sep/09/capital-in-waiting-trepidation-in-corner-of-borneo-earmarked-as-the-new-jakarta
Lyons, K. (2019, August 27). Why is Indonesia moving its capital city? Everything you need to know. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/27/why-is-indonesia-moving-its-capital-city-everything-you-need-to-know
Maryati. (2019, August 1). Jangan lupakan aspek sosial-budaya saat pindah ibu kota. Antara News. https://www.antaranews.com/berita/988752/jangan-lupakan-aspek-sosial-budaya-saat-pindah-ibu-kota
Nainggolan, E. U. (2022). Urgensi pemindahan ibu kota negara. https://www.djkn.kemenkeu.go.id/kanwil-kalbar/baca-artikel/14671/Urgensi-Pemindahan-Ibu-Kota-Negara.html
Newman, P., & Kenworthy, J. (1999). Sustainability and cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence. Island Press.
Pacheco-Torgal, F., Cabeza, L. F., Labrincha, J., & De Magalhães, A. G. (2013). Eco-efficient construction and building materials: Life cycle assessment (LCA), eco-labelling and case studies. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292638182_Eco-efficient_construction_and_building_materials_Life_cycle_assessment_LCA_eco-labelling_and_case_studies
Prahara, A. P. (2019, July 10). Pindah ibu kota negara : Indonesia belajar dari pengalaman Brasil pindahkan ibu kota negara ke Brasil. Mmckalteng. https://mmc.kalteng.go.id/berita/read/7018/pindah-ibu-kota-negara-indonesia-belajar-dari-pengalaman-brasil-pindahkan-ibu-kota-negara-ke-brasil
Reuters. (2019, August 26). Indonesian president announces site of new capital on Borneo island. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/08/26/indonesia-president-jokowi-new-capital-on-east-kalimantan-borneo.html
Riski, P. (2023, April 4). Sosiolog ingatkan pemerintah antisipasi masalah sosial terkait pemindahan IKN. VOA Indonesia. https://www.voaindonesia.com/a/sosiolog-ingatkan-pemerintah-antisipasi-masalah-sosial-terkait-pemindahan-ikn/6585018.html
Rowe, G., & Frewer, L. J. (2000). Public Participation Methods: a framework for evaluation. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 25(1), 3–29. https://doi.org/10.1177/016224390002500101
Saputra, E., Hartmann, T., Zoomers, A., & Spit, T. (2017). Fighting the Ignorance: Public authorities’ and land users’ responses to land subsidence in Indonesia. American Journal of Climate Change, 06(01), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2017.61001
Shinta, E. (2022, July 6). Emmanuela Shinta. Emmanuela Shinta. https://emmanuelashinta.org/
Tarigan, E., & Milko, V. (2023, March 9). Why Indonesia is moving its capital from Jakarta to Borneo. PBS NewsHour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/world/why-indonesia-is-moving-its-capital-from-jakarta-to-borneo#:~:text=JAKARTA%2C%20Indonesia%20(AP)%20%E2%80%94,to%20the%20island%20of%20Borneo.
Tejo, A. (2010, December 14). SBY: Mari lanjutkan ide membangun ibukota baru. https://nasional.okezone.com/. https://nasional.okezone.com/read/2010/12/14/337/403406/sby-mari-lanjutkan-ide-membangun-ibukota-baru
Terzis, G. (2010, November 9). Jakarta’s Urban Nightmare. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2010/11/09/jakartas-urban-nightmare/
The Jakarta Post. (2017, April 10). Indonesia studies new sites for capital city. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2017/04/10/indonesia-studies-new-sites-for-capital-city.html
Tzoulas, K., Korpela, K., Venn, S., Yli-Pelkonen, V., Kazmierczak, A., Niemelä, J., & James, P. (2007). Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 81(3), 167–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.02.001
Van Der Heijden, J. (2017). Urban sustainability and resilience. In Regulatory Theory Foundations and applications (pp. 725–740). https://doi.org/10.22459/rt.02.2017.41
World Bank Group. (2019, October 3). Perlu Reformasi Berani untuk Wujudkan Potensi Perkotaan Indonesia. World Bank. https://www.worldbank.org/in/news/press-release/2019/10/03/indonesia-bold-reforms-needed-to-realize-urban-potential
World Population Review. (2023). Jakarta population 2023. https://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/jakarta-population
World Resources Institute. (2020). Freshwater. https://www.wri.org/water